《中英對照讀新聞》
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2017-01-10 字型: 列印

《中英對照讀新聞》Chickens exhibit Machiavellian tendencies, scientists discover -科學家發現,雞呈現權謀傾向

◎陳正健

Chickens don’t have a reputation for being the brightest group in the animal kingdom, but a new study has found we may have dramatically underestimated their brainpower. In fact, they have distinct personalities, and even exhibit Machiavellian tendencies.

在動物王國裡,雞並沒有最聰明群體的美名,但一項新研究發現,我們可能大幅低估牠們的腦力。事實上,牠們擁有獨特的個性,甚至呈現權謀傾向。

The study found that chicken are capable of self-control and will wait longer for a greater food reward. The birds demonstrate thinking skills that are similar to mammals and primates. They also have a sense of numbers, with even newly hatched chicks able to discriminate between quantities, and do simple arithmetic.

這項研究發現,雞有自我控制的能力,並願為了更好的食物報酬等待更久。此種鳥類展現近似哺乳類與靈長類的思考技巧。牠們也有數字意識,即使初生小雞也可辨別數量,做簡單的算數。

Besides, chicken can experience complex emotions, including fear, anticipation, anxiety and empathy. When experiencing fear, chickens show similar responses to human and other animals, including an increased heart rate and body temperature.

另外,雞能夠體驗複雜情緒,包括恐懼、期待、焦慮及同情。當體驗恐懼時,雞呈現類似人類和其他動物的反應,包括心跳率和體溫增加。

"Chickens are behaviourally sophisticated, discriminating among individuals, exhibiting Machiavellian-like social interactions, and learning in complex ways that are similar to humans." the study author Lori Marino said.

研究作者勞瑞.馬利諾表示:「雞有世故的行為,能辨別個體,展現權謀式的社會互動,並以複雜的方式學習,就像人類那樣。」

《新聞辭典》

Machiavellian:形容詞,權謀的,馬基維利的。例句:People with Machiavellian traits are always cold and rational.(具有權謀特質的人總是冷靜和理性。)

primate:名詞,靈長類,靈長目。例句:Primates are smart animals.(靈長類是聰明的動物。)

arithmetic:名詞,算數,計算。例句:He is good at arithmetic.(他擅長算數。)

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